INTRODUCTION TO ERRORS AND THEIR TYPES IN BRIEFWhile writing programs we have to take care of many things and whenever we miss any thing required this creates a situation that prevent the program execution.
In simple words any problem generated while developing a program is known as an Error.Technically errors are known as bugs in computer science.
Basically there are three types of errors in c programming:
C Runtime ErrorsC runtime errors are those errors that occur during the execution of a c program and generally occur due to some illegal operation performed in the program. Examples of some illegal operations that may produce runtime errors are:
Dividing a number by zero
Trying to open a file which is not created
Lack of free memory space
It should be noted that occurrence of these errors may stop program execution, thus to encounter this, a program should be written such that it is able to handle such unexpected errors and rather than terminating unexpectedly, it should be able to continue operating. This ability of the program is known as robustness and the code used to make a program robust is known as guard code as it guards program from terminating abruptly due to occurrence of execution errors.
Compile errors are those errors that occur at the time of compilation of the program. C compile errors may be further classified as:
When the rules of the c programming language are not followed, the compiler will show syntax errors. For example, consider the statement,
The above statement will produce syntax error as the statement is terminated with : rather than ;
Semantic errors are reported by the compiler when the statements written in the c program are not meaningful to the compiler. For example, consider the statement,
In the above statement we are trying to assign value of a in the value obtained by summation of b and c which has no meaning in c. The correct statement will be
Logical errors are the errors in the output of the program. The presence of logical errors leads to undesired or incorrect output and are caused due to error in the logic applied in the program to produce the desired output. Also, logical errors could not be detected by the compiler, and thus, programmers has to check the entire coding of a C program line by line.